1. Фенология: изучаем лето

    Лето! С каким нетерпением мы ждём его. Но можно ли предсказать, каким оно будет и когда наступит? Оказывается, можно. Давайте поможем фенологам собрать как можно больше данных о том, как ведёт себя природа летом. Этот курс станет вашим проводником на широкой дороге летнего цветения природы.

    • August ...

      Summer ends ... It seems that before the beginning of the academic year and the calendar autumn for another two weeks, but the evening is getting colder, and most importantly the nearness of autumn is felt already in nature. It's time to celebrate the last summer event - the beginning of the dispersion of the fruits of the yellow acacia (so all is mistakenly called a shrub known to botanists under the name of a caracane tree).

      In the leaves of beans - the fruit of legumes - there are special fibers that are located at an angle to the axis of the fruit. When the mature tissues of the fetus dry up, a mechanical stress arises that causes the bean to crack and twist its wings in a spiral.

      Seeds fly apart like a catapult. If you come to the acacia at this time, you can hear a continuous snap, sung Olegom Chuhontsevym "When the hundred and rubbish on to the acacia pods pop into the garden ..."

      In the suburbs, this seasonal phenomenon began already in the first week of August. And this means that it is time for us to summarize our observations, compare our data with the data of other project participants, and, of course, proceed to fixing the autumn observations in the course "Phenology: autumn observations" .

      The first yellow strands in the crowns of elm, lime or birch will mean the beginning of autumn in your region.

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    • Moscow. The top of the summer ...

      In Moscow, July. But not so important, what month on the calendar, how much is important the amount of heat that it brings to nature and its condition. In Moscow, the heat of the summer is slowly coming, about two weeks later than last year.

      Thanks to the rainy and cool weather, however, everything looks juicier and greener than usual. Yes, and motley grass is not so bright and colorful, and diverse. But this is exactly in Moscow, where I now have the opportunity to observe, and where the variety of species is significantly less than in the countryside.

      The order of flowering plants and fruit ripening is still extremely chaotic, but as compared to the past years, when I did not pay special attention to it, while it is difficult, it remains only to fix everything. And most of all, of course, the incompleteness of data prevents.

      So, on Thursday, July 13, I discovered that some of the berries had ripened in the orga . This event is from a number of observables and it refers to the very end of summer observations, to the tenth group. At the same time, the cherry must begin to keep up. In Moscow, this does not happen yet. And before that, raspberries and black currants should be in time. Raspberries are in our natural park, they are still not ripe, but currants in Moscow can not be found. And the bilberries should have been in time earlier. But where in the Moscow forests to look for blueberries?

      On the same day, we marked the blossoming of burdock , as in the past year it is quite close to the beginning of flowering of willow-tea , which blossomed on July 10; it's not for nothing that the phenologists unite them into one group of seasonal phenomena. It's just that all these events should have started about the same time, when the medicinal drone began to blossom, which happened on June 24th . At us this year burdock and willow-tea were synchronized with white clover , and at all with medicinal.

      But the top of the summer we consider first of all by the blossom of the linden tree, and it becomes more and more massive. The first flowers in the center of the city near the small-leaved linden opened on July 9, but in the center all seasonal phenomena begin earlier. In our district, the first lime blossomed by the river , it happened on July 10th. On July 12, the linden in our yard finally opened .

      But in Astrakhan, a small-leaved linden already with fruits ! Earlier Ivan Solovyov, an active participant in our phenological studies, believed that lime leaves in Astrakhan are not, but then found it already with fruits. Next year it will be possible to compare the flowering period.

      And in Moscow cherries start to keep up.

      A nasty fungal disease caused by tuffer, this year, we not only affected the cherry, but plums.

      And, apparently, these trees affect different types of tuffers, but in mushrooms I'm not at all an expert. Cheremokha now looks quite different, all affected by the tuffer fruit dried and almost invisible, but a lot of perfectly healthy fruit.

      In Astrakhan, the cherry tree ripened on July 3 . I also want to note from comparisons that in Moscow the clover of meadow on June 24 was still at the very beginning of flowering , and in Astrakhan on June 26 the seeds and clover heads were already withered.

      Even in Moscow, now in blossom, the smell is stupid ...

      And in Moscow there were large bronzovki, which we used to admire only at the dacha ...

      Here I photographed a beetle in the inflorescences of the vassilistnik bright. In the Red Data Book of Moscow, this beetle is marked as vulnerable in the conditions of Moscow, in 2008-2010, the increase in numbers was noted only in large forest parks, in Losiny Island, in the Izmaylovskiy forest park, and now there are also a significant number of them in the west of Moscow.

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    • All summer in one day ...

      In a sense, I joked, because despite the cool and rainy weather this Moscow summer nature develops at its own pace. All summer events are gradually taking place. But we feel ourselves approximately, as in the story of Ray Bradbury about Venus. Today, for example, it's sunny and even a little hot, as much as 23 ° C. But already tomorrow it is forecasted to be overcast, the temperature will not rise above 18-19 ° C, there will be rains and thunderstorms, and so on until the end of the week. Sunny days for walking and research do not often pamper us. Today I decided to see how many summer observations we have already completed. How many "stages" of the big summer journey have been passed?

      In summer, I really like to meet the first appearance of long-flowering plants. This is the head of the clover meadow I photographed on June 18. Every day they will become more and blossom they will be until the cold. Another month four we will everywhere meet a flowering clover meadow.

      So, the first observation of the summer was to record such events: the beginning of the dispersion of mature elm fruits ( marked on June 9 ). The beginning of the flowering of forest raspberries ( marked on June 11 ), the wild rose (Nivianica) (BEFORE THE PORN IS NOT FLOWERING). The beginning of the flowering of hawthorn ( celebrated on May 23 ). The beginning of flowering strawberries ( marked on June 5 ). The appearance of oily mushrooms (they did not meet mushrooms, but they did not go to the forest and I can not look for mushrooms).

      All the events (except the flowering of the niovanica) occurred in close numbers. Only the flowering of hawthorn is knocked out, but it is known for many species blooming in May-June, apparently, we caught the May look).

      The second summer observation: the beginning of flowering rosehip ( marked on May 30 ), the viburnum ordinary ( marked on June 12 ). The beginning of dispersion of poplar seeds ( marked on June 18 ).

      The third summer observation: the beginning of flowering of acacia white ( marked on June 18 ), hedgehogs of the national team ( marked on June 18 ). The first ripe berries of wild strawberries (not yet). The beginning of flowering of the water lily is white (in Moscow it is not). The beginning of the blossoming of the egg capsules is yellow (has not yet begun). The beginning of flowering yarrow ( marked on June 11 ). The beginning of flowering cornflower meadow (not started).

      Today I managed to penetrate into the secret of timothy feathering ahead of flowering , the time of flowering which will come only to the fifth stage of summer seasonal development of plants. And now only the third one is taking place. We were fortunate enough to meet a separate group of plants, which for some internal reason (maybe there is a good place for them, where the heat and very fertile soil, for example) decided to bloom before the due date. And yet most of the timothy is now in the earing phase and has not yet begun to bloom.

      What general conclusions can be drawn? First of all, the second and third group of phenomena this year in Moscow are very close in terms. June 18 began as the scattering of poplar seeds from the second group of summer phenomena, and the flowering of acacia white (robinia) and hedgehogs of the team from the third group. The first group is markedly separated, but at the same time the yarrow blossom from the third group was closer in time to the phenomena from the first group. On the other hand, the yarrow was met once in one place, while more flowering plants did not come across.

      We continue the summer observations!

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    • Celebrate summer events

      Dear colleagues!

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    • That's what it is, our summer ...

      Summer in Moscow this year is cold. At least, this is the beginning of our calendar summer. Judge for yourself, on June 1, the average daily temperature according to Gismeteo was + 13.5 ° С, on June 2 it fell to + 8 ° С, and on June 3 it was +10 ° С. At the same time on May 30, flowering rose hips in one of the points observed in our area of ​​Moscow, which indicates the beginning of the phenological summer. For the sake of justice it is worth noting that for the time being this is the only blossoming dog rose among all the studied "locations". True, and its flowering is already quite abundant.

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    • When does summer come?

      Dear colleagues!

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