1. Бабочки России

    • Investigation of the distribution range of the Butterflies in Russia.

      You can track the flight of butterflies, quantity and variety. A processed data we will be able to specify the exact area of ​​distribution of each species in the country. Write and send your material, even small notes to help us in this study.

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    • Butterflies Astrakhan region

      I Khalilov Alina, studying in 6th grade, doing the study of life abochek used in the Astrakhan region.

      For our school starts right field. I liked to run on it and consider numerous butterflies. I wanted to take a closer look and see how they live, breed. Therefore, reading books, catching butterflies and how to study the peculiarities of their life, decided to explore the village Starokucherganovka butterflies.

      I'm curious to know how the caterpillars of butterflies appear, and what butterflies live in the village Starokucherganovka. Particular attention is paid to the cabbage butterfly, which is a pest of our garden plants.

      2.Tsel: To determine the species diversity of butterflies Starokucherganovka village.

      Objectives:

      1. Figure out the structure of some of the features, lifestyle, reproduction, distribution and importance of butterflies in nature

      2.Opredelit butterfly species inhabiting the village Starokucherganovka.

      3 .. Literature Review

      About butterflies literature very much. I would like to get acquainted with a variety of butterflies is in our village. Had to work with determinants (Plavilshchikov 1994) Detailed description of the life of butterflies found in Bay Bienko GA details about the development of butterflies. About butterflies Astrakhan region not written much since in our area, their number is not great. (Nepomnyashchii, 2001)

      Place of performance of research work: village Starokucherganovka Nariman District, Astrakhan region. Study Period: May - November 2013. Duration: 7 mesyatsev.Issledovatelskaya work designed to improve and expand the knowledge of biology.

      For studying the variety of butterflies

      you need the following: Figure 1 Fishnet

      Entomological net, as the mesh of a net should be used caproic or silk cloth is well ventilated. Gauze for these purposes will not work.

      Field sumka.Korobka collection nasekomyh.Dve dissecting needle.

      Tweezers, preferably curved, pointed kontsami.Polietilenovye tape 25 x 3cm.

      Mordant for insects (jar capacity of 150 - 250ml with a tight lid).

      Tight box filled with a layer of wool storage babochek.Lupa.

      Catch a butterfly easy. On this activity requires a lot of effort, time and patience. To catch a butterfly net used. After that, the butterfly must be placed in the stain with a rubber tube, soaked with chloroform or dichlorvos. Then straighten butterfly on raspravilke

      On raspravilke butterfly should be 2 - 3 days. Then, using the atlas determinant need to configure what species the given specimen.

      5. Brief description of natural conditions.

      The climate of the area of ​​study area is continental with long warm winters and hot summers. By quantity of atmospheric precipitation area is considered low humidity. Less 200mm climate is continental and arid. Rare winter precipitation falls as rain or snow, which as a rule quickly melts. Characterized by easterly winds that determine the dry and dusty air in the summer and relatively low temperatures in winter. Winter begins on November 15-20, summer (the period with an average temperature above + 15 ° C) begins with the first of May and lasts 4.5 months.

      The average annual temperature - + 9,9 ° C Average annual humidity - 69%. Annual average wind speed - 3.3 m / c.

      Salt marshes are located around the village, Erik runs Konga, ring road, abandoned agricultural fields. The Forest passes just outside Erik Konga width B1 2 meters, where many herbs and grow trees such as poplar, mulberry, maple, elm leaved willow. In marsh zone occurs tamarisk shrub, camel thorn and lots of Salicornia. In the steppe zone of a variety of flowering plants.

      Pollination of many flowering plants is done by bees and butterflies. In general, the climatic conditions are favorable for the village habitat of different species of butterflies.

      6. Results of the study

      Lepidoptera squad.

      Fauna butterflies Astrakhan region is heterogeneous. It is composed of steppe and desert elements, the species composition of forest butterflies poor. It is believed that in our territory inhabited by 182 species of butterflies (Gavrilov, 2007), but they are small and inconspicuous, mostly nocturnal inhabitants. Butterflies are brightly colored. Butterflies twilight and night less variegated and the upper side of the wings they have similarities in color with the color of the substrate.

      The main distinguishing feature of butterflies is that their wings are covered with tiny, like dust, flakes. Because of this, they belong to the order Lepidoptera. Butterflies live wherever there are plants that have flowers with pollen and nectar, as well as leaves can feed their larvae. Butterflies and adapted to heat. Especially good they feel in our area, as summer temperatures reach 40.

      Butterflies feed on the sweet sap of plants - nectar. Flitting from flower to flower, are involved in the process of pollination and help plants to reproduce.

      Results of the study.

      As a result of this study, it was found that in the village inhabited by Starokucherganovka 17 species of butterflies, is 9.3% of the total species of butterflies. I was just 89 butterflies collected. Of these, only 12 moths were caught with the help of a net, two already dead butterfly was found, one butterfly was photographed and two butterflies seen me in nature were identified using the atlas [2, 3]., And for 79 butterflies I watched where fly like a fly, and what plants sit. To summarize I was missing until the collected material to argue about what they see, but next season I'll watch the butterflies closer.

      Table 1.Vidy butterflies in the village Starokucherganovka

      Number

      Insect species

      The coastal part of Erik Konga

      Community

      School

      Highway

      On Eric

      Konga

      only

      1

      Peacock

      1

      -

      -

      -

      1

      2

      Cabbage butterfly

      3

      6

      1

      -

      10

      3

      Butterfly limonnitsa

      4

      8

      1

      -

      13

      4

      Copper-butterfly

      2

      6

      2

      10

      5

      Painted lady butterfly

      5

      3

      8

      6

      Butterfly Sailboat Podalirius

      1

      1

      7

      Nymphalidae

      1

      1

      8

      Swallowtail

      1

      1

      9

      Willow perelivnitsa

      1

      1

      10

      Blues Icarus

      4

      4

      11

      Hyles Totenkopf

      1

      1

      12

      Nymph Atlanta

      1

      1

      13

      Moth underwater

      1

      1

      14

      Scoops

      3

      2

      3

      1

      9

      15

      Loopers

      1

      6

      1

      -

      8

      16

      Roisterer

      2

      1

      2

      -

      5

      17

      Gipsy-moth

      5

      2

      7

      Only

      89

      Cabbage butterfly.

      Always thought that this is one species of butterflies, but I was wrong. Hiding under the name of cabbage 3 species of butterflies: cabbage, small white, bryukvenniua.Vse these three species have been described by Carl Linnaeus in 1758g. Basically, they can be found in the gardens where there are various cruciferous plants: yarutka, bug-infested, mignonette, mustard, cabbage, turnips, rutabaga, turnips. Against other butterflies they dull coloring, they unnecessarily or white or yellow.

      The largest vegetable-cabbage whiteflies - Pierisbrassicae (Linnaeus, 1758)? wingspan of 65 mm, while the small white only 45 mm. Spots on the wings of black cabbage, and the rest gray.

      Between a small white (Pieris rapae (Linnaeus, 1758) and bryukvennitsy - Pieris napi (Linnaeus, 1758) differ in that vein bryukvennits bottom surface of the rear wings are covered with dark scales, why there is a bright pattern on diverging from the center of the strips. These species are not similar only externally but also biologically. green caterpillar with longitudinal yellow stripes feed on the leaves of crucifers, but to lay their eggs, they certainly choose kapustu.Odna female cabbage bunch may postpone 300yaits and only 200 small white eggs. cabbage has a sexually dimorphic. Females seem to be more ornate with on the front fenders 2 bright speck pemnyh .. From May to November, they have 3 generations. overwinter under kukolki.Rasprostranena everywhere.

      Gypsy moths are forest pests. Their caterpillars devour needles and damage all conifers. Earlier in the village grew silkworms. Of cocoons produced yarn spinning yarn cocoon.

      Silkworm. Now Butterfly silkworm is very rare. We met him near the village of mulberry on June 25, 2013 g, which leaves its larvae eat.

      Cabbage butterfly gardens dangerous pest because its larvae feed on the leaves of cabbage. They fly in a few instances mostly in the garden. They swarm over the vegetable garden and the garden from April to October. Some butterflies have been met, even in the end of November 2013

      Caterpillars hawk "dead head" eat potatoes, intoxicating.

      Admiral butterfly caterpillars, urticaria day peacock like nettle leaves. But since we have little nettle, the butterflies and we are very rare.

      Blues prefer plants of the legume family. Urticaria flies 2-3 immediately and basically over flowering plants garden. In the steppe we have not met a single butterfly. Peacock we met on 10avgusta Eric Konga near willow trees.

      Swallowtail butterfly lays eggs on a variety of umbrella plants (fennel, carrots and so on.). Although it is a rare species, the larvae can harm crop yields. Butterfly we found near the school on September 2 2009, but she was already badly damaged and dead.


      The table shows that the peak appearance of butterflies is in July month, but until November, you can still find rare instances, as the weather can stand warm. The most frequent Limonnitsa butterflies, cabbage, Painted Lady. But moths we could neither catch nor photograph as wings night changed their shape and seemed excessively pomyatymi.Lovit butterflies butterfly net is not so difficult, but it is a pity, because they can break their wings. So we tried to take a photo, but it's a real hunt, is very difficult and requires great patience. I will continue to study the butterflies of his village, the scientists of our universities have supported me and gave good advice on many issues.

      7.Vyvod

      Butterflies belong to the order Lepidoptera, the insect class, type of arthropods. Butterflies are organs of sight, hearing, smell, touch, and they feel pain. For flight in butterflies have a well-developed wings, which are formed by special scales, which are considered during catching butterflies .. Hence the name squad - cheshuekrylye.Vo time of its development, the butterflies go through stages: egg - caterpillar - pupa - adult individual, but I managed to only see a butterfly and a caterpillar, chrysalis but not found. Butterflies play great importance in nature, as are involved in pollinating plants and help them reproduce. And since everything in our village are engaged in growing tomatoes, peppers, watermelons, the presence of butterflies is important.

      In the village lives Starokucherganovka 22 species of butterflies, of which four species are listed as endangered. Gypsy moths are forest pests. Their caterpillars devour needles and damage all conifers. Earlier in the village grew silkworms. Of cocoons produced yarn spinning yarn cocoon. Produced silk threads for tkani.Seychas butterfly silkworm is very rare. We met butterfly silkworm mulberry near the village on 25 June 20013 g, the leaves of which its larvae eat.

      Cabbage butterfly gardens dangerous pest because its larvae feed on the leaves of cabbage. They fly in a few instances mostly in the garden. They swarm over the vegetable garden and the garden from April to October. Some butterflies have been met, even at the end of November 2009

      Caterpillars hawk "dead head" eat potatoes, intoxicating.

      Admiral butterfly caterpillars, urticaria day peacock like nettle leaves. But since we have little nettle, the butterflies and we are very rare.

      Blues prefer plants of the legume family. Urticaria fly on 2 3ekz. immediately and basically over flowering plants garden. In the steppe we have not met a single butterfly. Peacock we met on 10avgusta Eric Konga near willow trees.

      Swallowtail butterfly lays eggs on a variety of umbrella plants (fennel, carrots and so on.). Although it is a rare species, the larvae can harm crop yields. Butterfly we found near the school on September 2 2009, but she was already badly damaged and dead. All that we have displayed in our school newspaper and the school website. When in zoology at the 7th grade will be studying insects, make sure you introduce your work and tell all my classmates about butterflies, which explores the life and which in our village and fields follow. Collection material in the form of photographs will be ready by next year.

      Butterflies need to protect! . Then in rural gardens and harvest will be the family income. Butterflies help us all to himself.

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