1. Горы – к небу, вдаль – равнины...

    • The first conclusions.

      Available in the project profiles have the following conclusions:

      • 1.Samym common relief-forming factor in the European part of Russia is the activity of water. The collection project has wonderful pictures of beams, ravines, river valleys and their parts: the floodplain delta.
      • 2. On the south of Russia, in the Astrakhan region, found relief created by the wind. In Karelia observe glacial landforms.
      • 3.Zonalnost in relefoobrazovaniiproslezhivaetsya: north - glacial terrain, center and south - erosional relief, south - aeolian relief.
      • 4. Do not subjected to the law of zoning endogenous forms of relief - plains predominate in all the studied areas.
      • 5.The in Udmurtia, except ubiquitous erosion relief, preserved the unique relict forms have arisen in the past in very different climatic conditions. One of these forms are ancient inland dunes, which stretch along the river in the center and south of Udmurtia. They are sand hills with steep one and a gentle slope opposite. Dunes formed by wind-blown loose sand from the surface of the river terraces. In the north there pugi - hills piled sand and gravel. They are products of ancient sediments of rivers, according to another version, folded sediments of an ancient glacier, located north of the territory of Udmurtia.
      • 6.Relef undoubtedly affect the emotional state. It would be interesting to find out what kind of terrain and how has this effect?

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    • What is the relief?

      The relief of the Earth formed by internal and external forces - in the eternal struggle. Endogenous (internal) processes are primarily neotectonic (latest) crustal movements - earthquakes and volcanic activity, caused mainly by the movements of the lithosphere plit.Vnutrennimi process creates major landforms on Earth - the depression of the oceans, continents, mountains, plains, areas of island arcs, volcanoes, lava flows (traps). The surface of mountains and plains has a complex topography consisting of smaller forms.

      Under the influence of exogenous (external) processes are destroyed and formed large medium and small forms of relief. In any terrain necessarily meet any form of relief, as described below.

      The most important role in the formation of exogenous relief work plays rivers and temporary potokov.Oni create widespread erosion (fracture) and accumulative (the accumulation of sedimentary material) landforms - river valleys, gullies, ravines, Delta and others ..

      In the north, widespread glacial forms are due to the activities of modern and ancient glaciers. They are represented by valleys, troughs, "mutton foreheads" and "curly" rocks (rocks smoothed by the glacier), glacial lakes, moraine ridges, ozami and others.

      In areas where permafrost, permafrost developed a variety of forms (cryogenic) relief - Pingo, thermokarst (subsidence and thermokarst lakes).

      Karst topography (caves, sinkholes, dips) are formed by dissolving the rocks in the water.

      Landforms created by the wind, called aeolian (named after the Greek god Aeolus, the ruler of the winds). This sand hills - dunes and dunes, wind-sand flow lathed rocks of fantastic shapes - outliers. The mountains are formed by weathering outcrops - rock destruction. There are also less common forms of relief, characteristic of a particular locality. For example, in Udmurtia is pugi, continental relict dunes.

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