Museum Education is a special kind of teaching practice: this form of training organization combines learning process with real life and provides students through direct observation of familiarity with objects and phenomena.
The practice of conducting lessons, tours and classes in the museum shows a high level of interest and motivation of students to forms of organization learning. This gives reason to believe that such lessons, extra-curricular activities have a number of important psychological and pedagogical resources that enhance performance and quality of students mastering the material.
The first thing to note is - a great educational potential lessons held in the museum, as well as their focus on the personal development of the student. Also note that the observation of the students of junior classes, chat with them, questioning prove that the trip to the museum, classes in the museum are the most memorable events conducted during the school year (along with sports holidays and visit the circus).
Second psychological and educational resource can be called systematic perception. During the lesson, held in the museum, included a variety of channels of perception: visual, auditory, kinesthetic, developing imaginative perception of an object or phenomenon and artistic taste, shape the evolution of convergent and creative thinking, reflective updated skills and processes.
In the structure of the lesson or lessons in the museum world stand 3 important steps:
1) Prepare lesson tours in the museum;
2) conducting lessons, excursions;
3) summarizing the results.
At all stages, it is necessary to take into account the age characteristics of students. Careful preparation and planning - an important component of the organization of the lesson in the museum, which affects the efficiency and success of the occupation. At the first stage sets goals and objectives formulated lesson was used to select the content and selection of methods for active perception of information (production series of problematic issues before class excursions; staging creative tasks - make an outline of interesting subjects to respond in writing to questions posed), etc. . So, in an elementary school motivation is created by comfort educational environment (external environment and psychological atmosphere lessons - teacher appearance, his voice, intonation, etc.). For junior pupils interesting competition with their peers, the approval of the reference adult (teacher, parent). The origins of educational motivation at any age can be: interest information (cognitive demand); interest in the method steps (see how that is done); interest in people, organizing the learning process; the need for self-expression and self-presentation; updated creative position; realize the significance of what is happening to themselves and others (conscious motivation).
Note that from a psychological point of view is very important effect of exposure, which must be polymodal, i.e. constructed in such a way as to include various senses (through color and light design, incorporating materials of different textures, sounds, etc.).
At any stage of the lesson is important emotional background and favorable psychological climate lesson (goodwill, mutual respect, comfort, cooperation). Psychologically and physiologically justified inclusion in such classes gaming moments - contests, competitions, fitness breaks. Well, if the lesson is not organized in the museum with the whole class, and with it a part (10-12 people - the optimum amount for full assimilation of information). It can be organized in the framework of an elective, elective course or elective course. Conducting lesson in the form of lectures weakly actualizes motivational processes. According to various psychological studies lecture gives a small percentage saving information.
Third psychological and educational resource is developing potential lessons in museums (eg, the development of critical thinking, independence of judgment). Development of student's personality comes through the inclusion in the lesson reflexive questions such as "What do I already know about this subject?", "What is learned in this lesson?". At the stage of summarizing important becomes the reflexive question like "What do I want to learn more on this topic?". Equally important is the search for answers to the questions: "How do the acquired knowledge to everyday life?", "How can you use them?", "Why you need them?". This step can be carried out using various separate and developmental tasks (final conversation, drawings, sculpture, design, etc.) that will help consolidate their knowledge and to facilitate the memorization process. Importantly, the efficiency of the students in the museum increases if the work is organized as a definite system - a system in a museum studies, system studies on specific topics in various museums, as well as if it is a single thought methodical system, covering the period from preschool to senior school age.
Fourth psycho-pedagogical resource - the possibility of disclosure of personal creative potential (as a teacher and student). Teacher is important to create the conditions for students to express themselves creatively. This task can be done through creative assignments for students: essay, short story, review, essay, drawing, crafts, reasoning, report, article, etc. It is necessary to encourage the students to a meaningful evaluation seen and heard during the lesson excursions. Presenting material for comparison, returning to the review, the teacher activates students' reflections.
Special kind of developmental and creative work in the museum can become self-study student (or group of students) classroom hours in the museum or independent research (individual or group).
Fifth psychological and educational resource that reflects the specifics of the lesson in the museum, is a dynamic organization and variability of the process and content of learning.
In summary, clearly visible psychological and pedagogical resources lesson tours in the museum:
implementation of the principle of visual learning;
enhance communication of acquired knowledge with life;
How much can give a student a well-organized museum occupation? You know the answer, and probably using this resource in the educational process. Kids love to escape from the school walls and in the new atmosphere of unusual engaged quite commonplace - learning.
But the museum, as a source of new knowledge, the teacher may be involved in the learning process, not only according to the scheme resulted in children, paid work and free guide.
How else to use this resource? Here are some options.
Incredibly popular among young people quest technology deserves your teacher attention. The word "quest" we mean adventure exploratory nature, a kind of cognitive game. Of course, should take into account the fact that the museum staff hardly allowed visitors behave on tour somehow unconventional: talk, run and interfere with the operation of the museum. So before I tell you the conditions of the game, remind students that they should behave in a museum as regular visitors. Prepare to be considerable, you are required to map the tasks for the children, which is based will find exhibits, watching them, search for some connections or patterns. In the map, for example, 10 questions. How can they sound? Ask people in a certain room to find an artifact such year with the specified tag. Or, for example, in the museum, in one of the sectors hanging newspaper, it is necessary to find information about a person with the surname Ivanov (whatever you want), but based on the article guys should indicate his profession. In general, the game requires a detailed introduction to the student exhibit and the maximum amount of information that he can give him. Teacher of questions so that between them traced thematic relationship. They should not be too simple (to lie on the surface), but also about the time spent searching, shall not exceed forty minutes. Time to complete the task - for about a week. That is, the guys themselves determine the day and time when they visit the museum and completing quests.
Writing an essay
More traditional, but no less productive approach. That is, after the usual group tours or independent visit to the museum, the guys have to write a short essay. Your requirement - without statistics, based on the experiences and observations. Much better if the guys do not take advantage of the Internet and reference books, and write about their own experiences on the tour. Even before visiting the museum, tell them about the upcoming mission, they will be more attentive.
Ask the children to make a report about the museum. Do not limit their ability to genre. Most likely, you would expect an influx of articles telling about the museum, its orientation and exhibitions. But students can approach the creative tasks: an interview with museum staff to record a video clip to attach fotoootchet article. Students only hint at such options, and they will engage in the development of ideas. This creative approach, it can be used in two cases. For example, the Russian lessons in the study of journalism, it will be a creative homework. At the same history lesson you ask a more specific topic, and the student writes an article is not about the museum, but about one of his exhibitions, etc.
The museums are allowed to take pictures, so this task is quite doable. To children was not difficult, again, field work must be defined to the museum hall, sector exposure. Guys do photos, comment on them. Then you create a multimedia presentation as fotolektsii. The results of the work should be showcased, so you need to prepare a lesson for certain equipment.
History of one exhibit.
Each of the guys chooses a particular exhibit and collect information about it. He eventually obtained a small story, supplemented by images of the exhibit.
This job is suitable for elementary school students. They also often visit museums, but the job should match their age. Not a bad option - museum tale. This is also one of its kind short compositions, but carrying more creative, even fantasy character. Guys are in small tales based on impressions from visiting the museum.
Fairy tales may be accompanied by illustrations.
And, of course, has not been canceled, the standard lessons discussions, which seemed to Longyear tour allows children to better understand its subject, eliminate gaps and discuss what they see. Children together with the teacher summarize new information, share their impressions. Teacher at the stage fixing can make questions for the guys who will help you learn how much students remember and understand. It can be both tests, crossword, and blitz.
If possible, invite a lesson worth museum staff, who will answer the questions of students to explain something, tell me. It's a great motivation for frequent visits to the museum, a kind of advertising.
As you can see, quite a few options. You should use them in practice to free tuition guys used various sources of information, so they are easier to communicate with people (employees of the museum), studied allocate their time and work independently.
To crown it all, arrange in a class competition for the best proposal for the organization of the museum lesson. Maybe you guys will offer a new and original idea!
In Moscow, began to practice offsite lessons - children can now learn not only in the native school, but also in major museum venues of the capital. Started with biology and literature.
Without leaving his native city, they make a journey into the rainforest, savannah and conquer mountains. Biology lesson seventh "A" holds at their desks, and the Darwin Museum. Instead notebooks - route sheets. And these students forty minutes - not students, and expedition leaders, scientists, ecology, biogeography. They will present research work. And assessment is not the most important thing, it is important not to let the team and find answers to various questions.
"My job was difficult enough. I had to point out what kind of animals are found in South America, and what - in Africa. Here a very large variety of animals. More than half I did not even know that they exist," - says Ian Bazylev.
The teacher in this lesson, rather, the organizer and assistant students receive knowledge themselves. They have to learn to find information quickly, and there is already in the back row without serving.
"When is the guide or even the teacher, the student can listen, can not listen, and when he was there to fill, it should at least look through the window," - said the director of the Darwin Museum Anna Klyukina.
Studied every storefront and teacher. Before giving students here, he did all the job.
"I made a special trip to the museum for the first time for the development of these tasks, the second time I came prepared with the itinerary, went and met them myself," - said the biology teacher Ivan Smirnov.
Russian literature teacher and this lesson has taught poetry in the house where they were written, and read these lines, and sound different. To her eleventh-graders have seen this yourself, she led them to the Museum of Marina Tsvetaeva. Books, letters written by her hand, personal belongings and photos ... From this moment to students not only a poet - a devoted wife, mother, hostess "little castle", as Tsvetaeva herself called her apartment.
"It's very interesting when you can just go and see with your own eyes to see. You start to feel like a soul that atmosphere, in which the poet lived, in which it works," - said Zlata Otieva.
The same promise to make interactive lessons and physics, chemistry, history and world culture.
In Voronezh, students propose to transfer a thousand years into the past and experience for yourself: what was to study their peers in ancient Russia. On the lessons in the museum of the Internet age children are taught to read in Lucin, write with pen and ink in Old Slavonic, and more clearly explain what a "rod." Attend these classes makes nobody did, but always full of class: students recorded a few weeks.
Culture Minister suggested the lessons of history and literature carried out in museums. Do museums opportunities for realization of this idea? Tried to give answers Svetlana Zagorskaya - Deputy Head of the Department of Art Old Masters Pushkin Fine Arts Museum.