"Poetry is not content with the image of fate, human acts and thoughts she also wanted to master and hidden life of animals and to bring it under its influence and its laws" (J. Grimm, Reinhart Fuchs, Berlin, 1834)
"The source and origin of the animals is almost a necessity fables lies mainly poetic views of language, the donee all animate and inanimate, even - born and some personality, though animals have more freedom of movement and voice. We are attracted to animals is not only one of their external beauty, watching their passions , pain and suffering, we are compelled to recognize them some analogy [similarities] of our own soul. Involuntarily we tolerated them human properties. <...> And also features animals in turn are sometimes transferred to humans. Sagas and Mythology believe in transformation people into animals and vice versa, same applies here belief in the transmigration of souls. Pets are something incarnations of deities, the heralds of the divine will: for beasts and birds are wondering; beasts represent the constellations in the sky. <...> Finally in heraldry [science that studies Emblems] animals as symbols appear on billboards and banners. With the proliferation of poetry in these everyday our relationship to animals obviously had generated a lot of legends, pushes described the incident to the imaginary, "long past" - "when the animals still talking." These stories and serve as a basis for animal fables "(page 2-3," Russian folk tales about animals ", 1909)
The word "jackal" many people associate with something sinister and treacherous. But why? It's quite comely animals like Russian wolves, but smaller, carnivorous, with a short tail and pointed snout. Coloration of the jackals can be different: red, brown and even black-brown.
Did you know that dragons big sweet tooth? Of course, they hunt and small animals, because by nature are predators. However, jackals will not refuse from sweet and they are very fond of sweet fruit - the ripest! And in the search for the most ripe - they spoil a lot of immature, which, tasting, and they nadkusyvayut throw. Farmers is not very like!
Generally good jackals get along with people and are quite fearlessly lies just steps away from the man. But people are not very favorable to him: where many jackals, peasant holdings suffer badly. Besides jackals are carriers of many diseases because they often feed on carrion.
However jackals perfectly tamed, and in the distant past, they probably were the ancestors of dogs. This is demonstrated by the Egyptian history: among the monuments of culture are preserved statues of dragons! The ancient Egyptians perceived jackal able to see both day and night, as a symbol of the Egyptian god Anubis, the Pathfinder, the discoverer of the Path leading the soul from this world to another. However, jackal and associated with a cemetery! Until now, the god Anubis is portrayed as a black jackal or a jackal's head.
In other religions, the jackals are not held in high esteem: Buddhism jackal - a man steeped in evil, unable to understand the purity and goodness; Hinduism scavengers jackals and crows follow-destroyer goddess.
Probably because of his addiction to fall and the fact that they are carriers of diseases, jackals was perceived as a sinister predators devil dogs.
However, crows in my opinion in this regard is no better jackals! They also feed on carrion. I once asked his grandfather: "Why crows? They're useless: do not sing, ugly, dirty?". My wise grandfather, who grew up in a village in the Kostroma region and knows all the quirks of nature, immediately replied: "They are required! Because crows, like all predators, scavengers - are the best medics planet".
It is regrettable but true! If nobody ate dead animals, the planet would already mired in disease.
So now the word jackal I would not imagine the devilish dog, but only unscrupulous wolf-sweet tooth!
One member of our project inspired me to my question (which passed in the subject of the article) to search for the answer!
Indeed, why fox in many tales of the world appears tricky dodgy cheat! I found the answer to an interesting site about animals. See what the author writes a small note:
"In all folktales red fox has consistently demonstrated the wonders of resourcefulness and ingenuity, for which he was given a permanent epithet -" cheat. "It turns out that fairy tales are not far removed from real life: the fox and in fact very tricky and the smartest animal. She easily capable leave the chase, leaving his pursuers in disbelief and confusion. Moreover, the fox is able to trace and shoot down confused hunting dogs confused (she seemed to be "twists" their traces with traces of dogs and foxes and other forest dwellers), so it also knows all manholes, of which there are backdoors. hunters hunted foxes in a shelter, already rubbing their hands in anticipation of a good production, but cheats have long gone. Fleeing from hunters, foxes almost never run out into the open, knowing full well that there will be up to them very easy to get to. "
Now, that's all people in all corners of the world have noticed the unusual quality of the fox!
Did you know that the Russian researchers tales about animals in the 20th century was quite a bit. Among the major can be called only two: VJ Propp and EA Kostyukhin. With Vladimir Ya we are already familiar. So let's get to know Eugene A. and his fundamental work "Types and forms of animal epic". Here he writes Eugene A. Kostyukhin in this paper on the origin of the animal epic (epic - it works of folklore, heroic legends): "The Origin of the animal epic attributed to the prehistoric era, with the life of ancient hunters and shepherds. Researchers mythological school announced the Beast fable product
ancient world, the result of the transfer of human relationships to nature. "Animal saga stems from the continuous communication with animals and human - because of this - with their dating life lurking; This close association of animals raised to his level and contributed to the fact that the man part of their spiritual qualities endured them.: Pets were perceived as members of the family, groomed and who love: the nomadic peoples even today foals called Bratz and friends, talk to them as if they understand every word, and mourned their death, as if someone had died from relatives "[Grimm V., p. 366; cf .: J. Grimm, p. 11]. Thus a clear advantage, as is easy to notice given not primitive hunters and shepherds observant. Answering the question of when and where the animal could be epic, AA Kotlyarevskiy
Famous modern scholar of folklore, fairy tales and poetry Chinese Chinese language teacher - Natalia Repnyakova - in his article "PRINCIPLES ANALYSIS images of animals in the Chinese folk tale," writes about the significance of the images of animals for people's perception of the world: "The use of a name, properties, types of the animal is not random in a fairy tale, and in a certain way reflects the national perception of reality. In the traditional culture of images of animals are one of the means of expression of ideas about the world, being a cultural code. According to archaeological data, "zoomorphic <...> symbolism began to emerge as early as Neolithic era. <...> Subsequently zoomorphic <...> symbolism became universal for fine and decorative art <...> art images "Information in our blog thought this serious researcher was reduced slightly (characters <.. .>) to improve the "discoverability" (availability) of its main ideas. And this is the basic idea of this - not by accident, and we have long, Russian people choose heroes of fairy tales about animals bears, hares, foxes and wolves! Not by chance we endow their specific character traits! All it proves nothing but the influence of our historical past and the consciousness of our ancestors, which in the guise of animals gives us this day the wisdom of dozens of generations! Read more stories, dear participants! Will be the wiser! Read the full article known scholar of Chinese fairy tales about animals on the link: http://www.torchinov.com/торчиновские-чтения/четвертые-торчиновские-чтения/репнякова-н-к-принципы-анализа-образов-животных-в-китайских-народных-сказках/
All the stories of the world can be divided into several varieties, that is to classify them on the specifics of the plot and composition, as well as images of the characters and functions of items that are found in the fairy tale. So Vladimir Propp - authoritative Russian scientist folklore - in his fundamental work "The morphology of the fairy tale" has identified the following types: 1) fairy tales (adventure story, magical characters and objects), 2) the cumulative (in the plot occurs repetition of an action hero for example, in the Russian cumulative tale "Repka" heroes repeatedly taken to pull the turnip, but all can not: the action continues as long as the tractor does not attach to the little mouse) 3) tales about animals, plants, inanimate nature and objects 4) Household (tales of everyday situations of people: deceit, treachery, cunning) 5) fiction, 6) tiresome tales (in such small tale constantly repeats the same piece of text can be repeated ad infinitum: "I tell you a story about a white goby? - Say. - Tell me, yes I would say yes if you say megillah? - Well, tell me. - You say yes I say yes then you will be, how long it will be! I tell you megillah? .. "). Here such here classification leads renowned folklorist. However, the best known of this list, only three species of fairy tale genre: fairy tale, consumer and animal. Only their children and studying in ordinary schools !
Decided to write a note about fairy tales are not about animals and thereby remind participants / guests that our project is dedicated not only tales of animals in the world are countless, but the tales of things, natural phenomena (moon, sun, wind). So, dear blog readers in the world literature found, oddly enough, quite a large volume of fairy tales, in which the main characters are not humans and not animals! Such tales are no less interesting, and most importantly - are particularly fascinating for the scientific study of the material! If the images of animals for people of our beautiful planet, in more familiar from encyclopedias / Internet / TV broadcasts, here's the items in the fairy tales of the peoples of the world can meet and do strange! A natural phenomenon can manifest itself with a variety of sides! In the tales of the South Eastern countries, for example, the sun will be shown the evil hero (because, as you know, this is a very hot country, and the people there often suffer from drought). But the Moon! Oh, lovely Moon! It will be presented to the most wonderful, life-giving, the most beautiful heroine! In Arabic literature, for example, there is even an adjective describing the degree of female beauty: "Moon-faced!" You never know how these or other natural phenomena / objects will be presented in fairy tales! Read, for example, that this Ukrainian fairy tale "The sun, Frost and Wind" and see that "good winner" in this situation, for me personally was the unexpected character! .. The sun, frost and wind. Walked passerby saw the road three people and said to them: - Good day! - And went on. Were those arguing among themselves which of them he said, catching up with him, asked: - Who are you one of us wished a good day? And he asks: - And who are you? One says: - I am - the sun. Another says: - I - Frost. And third: - And I - said - Wind! - Well, it's what I said the Wind. Then the sun and said to the man: - I will burn you in the harvest. And the wind says: - Do not worry, I'm in the heat poveyu cold. A frost boasts: - And I'll be frozen in winter. Then the wind says: - And if you do, frost, you will start to freeze, then I'm not going to blow - that person and do not freeze. Oh, these tales! Until now, never ceases to amaze their diversity, interpretation and finals. Dear participants and guests, share, please, often with fairy tales! Their incredibly interesting to read and learn!
In discussing the results of the project I had the idea to write a quick note about what is different can be a fairy tale genre variety! For example, in this project we study only tales about animals, natural phenomena or objects. However, even within this species are distinguished relatively speaking "good", "neutral" and "evil" tale. Please note that there is a fairy tale with positive endings for all animals which, in its classification I called "good": in these tales no one dies, and the bad characters are punished humane way (for example, they are cheated, banished, frighten, injure, and the like). There are also tales of "neutral", in which the negative characters die in the end (read, for example, the tale of Helen participants' Goats and the Wolf "). But there are, in addition to everything else, and scary stories! I think that different people were writing them for adults or teenagers as "instructive scary!" In such "evil" fairy tales can be very painful way to die a few characters, or can be lost just one, but a fairy tale details the gruesome details: read such a tale member Catherine "Bear - lime foot", which cut off the evil bear's paw, remove her skin and allowed for meat. That may be so different tales of one variety! I think it was because the long tales composed for different ages, not to think that the tale - just child's play! Imagine how long ago dark winter evenings in rustic porch hardworking adults-men after a busy day going to listen to folk tales ...