Moulds or mold - various fungi belonging to micromycetes (from the Greek. Mikros - small and mykes - mushroom) - mushrooms and mushroom-organisms of microscopic size.) There are many types of mold. Most often found in bakery products Mucorales and imperfect fungi - Penicillium and Aspergillus.
Penicillium - typical for Penicillium conidia sporulation is reflected in the imaginative name "mushroom - kistevik" from the vegetative mycelium depart conidiophores, branching at the top in the form of a brush, which form a chain of colored single-celled spores (conidia). There are about 250 species of Penicillium, widely distributed in the soil. Fungi of the genus Penicillium cause spoilage and are participating in the expansion of plant and animal tissues. Form mold. Colonies penetsilla green color can often be seen on the things stored in basements. Species of the genus Penicillium present in cheeses Camembert and Roquefort. They live on cheese, spoiled food in the soil, compost, cellars and organic waste.
Aspergillus - kind of higher fungi. Aerobic microorganisms grow well on various substrates. Fluffy form flat colonies, initially white, and then, depending on the species, they take a different color associated with the fungus and metabolites sporification. The mycelium of the fungus is very strong, with the characteristic of higher fungi, with partitions. Fructifying hyphae (kondienosets) Aspergillus at the upper end is thickened, bearing the rod outgrowths - sterigmata from which otshnurovyvayutsyatsepochki spores - conidia. Radial arrangement of the chains of conidia reminiscent of a jet of water, poured from a watering can, therefore, this fungus is called leechnoy mold. It is widely distributed in nature, are very resistant to environmental influences.
Mucor- have representatives of non-cellular mycelium composed of thin strongly branching hyphae colorless, and often form a fluffy mold raids white or gray on plant foods (bread, jam, fruit, vegetables). Many species of this genus are developed in the soil, and manure. Since the mycelium in a large number of developing noticeable to the naked eye round sporangia located on special hyphae - Sporangiophores, fungi of the genus Mucor is sometimes called "capitate mold."
The spores of these fungi are always present in the air, so they are easy to colonize food.