1. From Japan to You: Haiku from Around the World

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    HOLIDAYS

    Holidays and related customs, I outlined in a separate group of seasonal words precisely because of non-obviousness. If we are talking about haiku hatch kidneys, planting or harvesting rice, referred to chicks, rabbits or swallow - more or less clear about what time of the year in question, but how do you know what season to indicate, for example, the word "bamboo"? He stands and evergreen all year round. Or "hinadan" - shelf for dolls?

    So Japanese holidays - they were at the time when most of the classic haiku created.

    The first day of the first month - New Year, Japanese O-Segatsu. We remember that it was for the Japanese and the first day of spring. On this day, as we do, people go to visit and congratulate each other, and in the homes of traditional decoration set kadomatsu - composition of pine and bamboo, sometimes even plums. Pine and bamboo symbolizes longevity and vitality, plum - resistance. Another home decoration in the New Year - Kagami mochi rice cakes two pairs, stacked and set symmetrically (hence the word Kagami - mirror: they seem to repel each other). Kagami mochi pose or tokonoma (niche where a picture hanging or standing ikebana) or homemade altar - kamidan. Top kagami mochi decorate tangerine.

    Another decoration of rice cakes - motibana several branches, which are attached mochi like flowers.

    Traditional Christmas table called Awsat-ryori, and mostly consists of any marinade susheniny, corned beef - because in the old refrigerator was not, and at the turn of the winter and spring straight from the tin with napryazhenka. Dried food is called hagatame, and according to legend, strengthens teeth. Now all this is more than decoration of the table, rather than the food, but in the New Year on the table should certainly be cooked kombu algae, fish cake kamaboko, sweet potato porridge with nuts, kimpira gobo (candied root thistle) and black soybeans - kuromame. Japanese drink HSE - Spiced sake, play games Caruth (Japanese map) hanetsuki (similar to badminton) and fly kites (tacos AGE). They also give gifts (otosidama) relatives and friends. Who decided to give money, but in the old days it was usually wear. Mention of such gifts, Christmas dishes and customs - seasonal words that indicate's New Year.

    Moreover, in Japan's New Year scored years. The Japanese did not mark birthdays, and with each new year just added yourself another year. So that the reference to "tosieri" - povzroslenii for another year - too seasonal word.

    On the second day of the new year calligraphy Japanese have - it's called "kakidzome", "first letter" and should also bring good luck. Generally, all that is done for the first time in the new year, anyway is an omen - the first dream (hatsuyume), the first exchange of letters (hatsudaeri), the first work (sigoto-Hajime), the first tea party hatsugama), the first visit to the temple (hatsumode) and the first purchase (hatsuuri), so the Japanese are trying to in the first days of the new year they all went off without a hitch, for a year meet - so spend it.

    On the seventh day's New Year (called dzindzitsu "human day"), the Japanese eat nanakusa Guy - soup of seven herbs, each of which is to bring the consumer health, good luck and all the best. Very old custom mentioned in Man'yoshu.

    Celebrating a long time and they are having fun, until Ko Segatsu (small New Year), which falls on the first full moon of the new goda.V this day admiring the moon, pray for a good harvest, play karivano (tug of war), and eat beans, adzuki mixed with rice.

    And here is close to the Setsubun (vernal equinox). On this day, heads of families throw roasted beans or doors and windows, or someone who put on a mask demon, saying, "Devils won, good luck to the house!". This rite is called mamemaki (throwing beans) or o-hara (the great purification). References to beans and demonic masks - an indication of Setsubun festival.

    There is another small holiday, which is now almost forgotten: the kindling fire. On the second day of the second month in the hearth fire was quenched with old and new diluted. "Fire the second day" - seasonal word indicating the second month of the year (and spring). On this day, the Japanese did to themselves healing cauterization wormwood.

    Well, in the third month of spring celebrating the most widely known outside Japan holiday - Hina-matsuri, holiday dolls. On the third day of the third month in a special shelf-hinadane planted elegant dolls - the emperor, empress, ladies, servants and musicians. Girls dress up in the best kimono (in modern Japan is one of the few occasions to flaunt in national dress), so that the words include seasonal and dolls, and a shelf, and smart girls.

    Somewhat later, the end of the third month, celebrates the Kukai, the monk and educator Japan. His images-mieyko exhibited in churches and homes, their mention - too seasonal word.

    And, speaking of spring holidays, it is impossible to overlook Khans - admiring the cherry blossoms.

    Hanami - holiday calendar not because cherry blossoms, you know, when she pleases, and not simultaneously throughout Japan, and from south to north. On the southern islands celebrate its bloom in late March, to the north it gets to the beginning of May.

    Note that the Japanese say not "admiring cherry blossoms" and "admiring flowers." If the poem says "flower" and does not specify which - means cherry. "Hana wa sakura, hito wa bushi" (flower - hence, sakura, man - hence, the Samurai) - wrote in the 18th century Motoori Norinaga first Japanese literature. At this time, parks and churches (many of which have their own parks) filled with strollers.

    About Sakura written indescribable amount of poetry, as well as the admiration of her. It should be noted that the Japanese, admiring cherry blossoms, does not indulge in the sublime meditations, but the most common way a drink and a snack, and many haiku describe the epic drinking in the mountains where sakura lovers make pilgrimages. Especially popular Mount Yoshino, who anciently famous for extraordinary beauty during cherry blossom. If the poem mentions Mount Yoshino and does not specify what this time of year - so spring and cherry.

    The main charm of cherry that flowers appear before the leaves, as would be premature, however Sakura - a symbol of youth. Especially beautiful is considered "cherry third day" - when the greatest number of flowers blossoms. Then Sakura starts to fly around the white snowstorm, and soon the trees are bare again until the foliage, his whole appearance evoking sadness - so cherry symbolizes even early death, and death in general.

    After cherry blossoms Unohana (Deutz). In the old days in honor of flowering even named the fourth month - utsuki.

    On the fifth day of the fifth month (now May 5, and in the old days it accounted for around June 11) celebrate boys - koi nobori. Indispensable trappings of this holiday are carp rag waving over the house - the number of boys living in the house, "wheel of arrows" yaguruma symbolizing militancy stand "carp" - nobori-Kazari, fukinagasi flag - a bunch of colored ribbons and Timak - special rice cakes wrapped in bamboo leaves. Well, actually carp, real, alive and cooked. Carp is a symbol of longevity and resilience and courage - for carp swimming against the tide.

    Also in these days before the feast of irises. Celebration included, of course, admiring these flowers, but not only. The fact that the iris in Japan is considered curative flower, and its roots are quite tasty. Therefore irises in this day and still tore armfuls of decorating their houses and clothes bundles. Also made special bags for dried irises, which are then worn around the neck - kusuridama. It was believed that these bags is removed and the evil eye disease.

    Satsuki - the fifth month of the old calendar - month rice planting. Because of this important case the wellbeing of the year, it was also a holiday. He called sanaeburi. These days she drank Japanese-ue dzake (sake rice planting) and arranged the ceremony misogi - purification. On this day to forgive one another and misdemeanor offense.

    Also in this month, at the end, the rainy season begins - Bayou (plum rain) or tsuyu.

    Next month is called "minadzuki" - anhydrous, but just at this time and most precipitation falls. Поэтомусредисезонныхсловвстречаютсяназвания ... diseases. The Japanese suffered asemo (painful heat) midzumusi (fungus), kakke (beriberi beriberi B) sekiatari (prickly heat), natsuyase (weight loss due to the heat), nebe (cold, caught in a dream), natsukadze (summer cold), sekiri (dysentery), nissyabe (sunstroke) and so on.

    On the seventh day of the seventh month (caught a trend?) Japanese celebrate Tanabata - night meeting Hikobosi and Orihime, Bootes and Weaver (star Altair and Vega). According to legend, they are the Heavenly River (the Milky Way), but once a year the magpies build a bridge out of their tails. Remember, I promised to explain why this month is called "fumidzuki" month letters? Because Tanabata festival decided to write love letters to each other in verse. The holiday itself and the associated custom were adopted from China.

    Since not all are so advanced, to write poetry, many simply write good wishes on special colored narrow strips of paper - tandzaku - and hang them on bamboo stalks or special ornaments made of bamboo though. Fabric or paper fukinagasi do, but not like in the feast of the boys, and like jellyfish or octopus. For decorations also make paper kimonos (and in the old days and they still wore!) Zhuravikov folded origami exhibit symbolic paper garbage bags in a sign of purification, and something like a fisherman's net paper - toami, the fishing luck. Paper also make balls-Kusudama. Japanese admire the stars and the autumn moon. This time of year often visible meteors (hokibosi).

    Now this holiday falls on July 7, and in the old days he got in August, when it felt the breath of autumn. Fumidzuki considered the first month of autumn, and it was then admired the full moon night sky.

    On fumidzuki also accounted Bon holiday. Now it is celebrated on August 12, and at that time he comes to the middle of the seventh month. On this day, it was decided to burn the lights to the souls of the dead, arriving "on leave" could find a home.

    On this day, the Buddhist tradition, one of the disciples of the Buddha was able to redeem his mother from hell hungry ghosts, and so glad for her salvation, that he began to dance. So in celebration of Bon dancing in front of the platform-specific Yagura (tower) or just. In Kyoto lit after dark grand bonfires in the form of the character "great." By the end of the holiday on the water allowed floating lanterns (toro-Nagase).

    Next month is called the month of foliage, Hazuki. Hassaku, the first day of the eighth month, was considered the end of the harvest. These are the days of hard work - in the eighth month (according to our calendar September) Japan begin to shake the strong ocean winds, and if the crop is not removed before their arrival, he will die. Hassaku means "the first new moon", but in the villages that day but she still called E but Satie - the day of the first fruits of the field. These fruits are sacrificed to the gods of fields or gave landowners. Also gave the paper dolls and horses of straw boys born this year. From the first sweet rice cakes made hassaku mochi and treated each other. On this day, it was decided also to congratulate your nurses and give them round boxes for storage and transport of food. Made figures of birds - sparrows, pheasants and herons. In the vicinity of Kyoto small pumpkins painted on women's faces, put them on a stick and wrapped cloth, turning into pupae princesses, Hime uribina. Men wore a dark kimono with the emblem - hassaku kosode women allowed to wear the same bright light kimono. In memory of the apprentice geisha, maiko, walk a day hassaku by Gihon, clad in a thin silk kimono. These days Korean plum blossoms - hassaku buy. Its flowers are called "vosmisloynymi" eight petals, and appreciated for what they are, torn, can stand for a long time, until the winter.

    On the second day after hassaku also lit a new fire and make cauterization.

    In the eighth month begin to turn yellow and blush trees.

    Nagatsuki - "long month," the ninth staroyaponskomu account.

    Clean air is considered to be particularly at this time, on the occasion of which all admire the moon. Bonus Points lyubovalschikam those for whom the moon sheds light on hagi flowers, and she blushes while - benidzome tsuki. At this time also fly to Japan for the winter wild geese. It's funny that in China they became a symbol of separation, because of China-they fly at this time. As a symbol of separation and longing for friends and they went in the Japanese literature, although the Japanese and they just fly in for a visit.

    Scarlet maple leaves - Momiji - start to fall off, which is arranged on the occasion of admiring them, and collecting the most beautiful, momidzigari.

    Next, the tenth month called Kannazuki - godless moon. This is because all the gods of Japan, according to legend, this month flock to Izumo and kept there to answer to the chief god of Japan, Okuninusi. For residents of Izumo, so this month - month bgov, kami aridzuki. For the rest - the reason to do everything with caution, and if possible to do as little as possible, because the gods who keep from mistakes and misfortunes, not around.
    At the end of this month decided to return all debts.

    Eleventh month - our money already in December - "frost month" simotsuki. Winter Solstice, the nastiest and darkest period of the year. On this day, Kagura dance sacred dances, in memory of how hiding in the cave of the sun goddess Amaterasu lured dancing and merriment.

    In the middle of the eleventh month of celebrating the "seven-five-three" sitigosan, holiday kids these ages. In medieval Japan, the infant mortality rate was high, so that if the child lived to three, then five and seven - it was a real treat. In the old days all children up to three shaved their heads at zero and three began to grow hair. Children under five years old dressed in a kimono "unisex", but five boys wore their first hakama pants are long and wide. The person who made it - usually the best friend of the family - becomes a "pants father" of the child, hakama-oya. In seven years girls clothes before rope tied up for the first time tied obi belt. Japanese children today is the first reason to try national costume. Children in this day treat Chitose-ame, "millennial sledostyami" and for the greater security of their health and good luck in the temples nailed boards depicting horse enamel. It is believed that these horses quickly donesut parents' wishes to the gods.

    Sivas, the last month of the year - "the month of priests" because priests Shinto religion is really troublesome time. After the New Year ahead! And that means you need to complete all the old rites. The last day of the old year is called O-bowls, great purification. Not in the metaphorical sense, but in the most literal sense: the Japanese on this day make a great cleaning, on-Soji not to take with them into the new year gryaz.V old farmhouses at this time rustled whisk for soot sudzuharai. And not only them: monks and priests also led churches in order. Then clean the priests in temples called pure clean flock to the last prayer of the year, hitting a "special night bell", but dzeya-Kane. Parishioners were treated to a sweet sake. The houses have established special-tosidana altar in honor of the god of the year. Above the altar sacred straw rope stronger-simenava with paper garlands. The Japanese did not sleep on New Year's night, they had a feast forgetting the passing year - or tosivasure bonenkay. The festival is also called tosimamoru, "Vigil of the year".

    Well, what better way to forget the year? Know which. And they had a snack with special noodles tosikosi (intersection), who symbolically "tied" to the end of New Year old. And yet it is easily torn, symbolizing a break with all the troubles are in the past year. More on this day was everyone's birthday in the old days.

    So here's a general outline of the story of the major Japanese holidays and words-Kigo associated with them. But it should be noted that many holidays in Japan, in each locality held their festivals, and they are also related seasonal words. But, as said, a classic, it is impossible to grasp the immensity.

    Machine translation
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