From Japan to You: Haiku from Around the World
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Hunting season for seasonal words
"Winter. The farmer triumphantly updates on peasant's sledge way ... "
Would Pushkin Japanese, he would not start life as a poem. Because it - so here's forehead, that's just bam - and winter? From the Japanese point of view this is not poetics. You draw the reader a picture, tell the Japanese, and he was not stupid, he would guess it winter, spring, or something else.
The national Japanese waka poetry certainly there are words that indicate the time of year, without naming him directly. Sometimes it's very obvious words: "snow" - seasonal word for winter, "haze" - for the summer, "crimson leaves" - for fall. Sometimes you need to understand the nature of life a little better than the average urban resident to guess: once in deer mating season in the fall, then "call of the deer" - the word autumn. Sometimes the need to specifically interested in Japanese flora and fauna, to understand when blooms hagi (lespedeza bicolor), and when - Unohana (Deutz).
Obvious Kigo like "snow", "autumn wind" and so on, we will not speak with them, and so everything is clear. Focus on the less obvious and does not obvious, but first let's talk about what you need to know about Kigo all.
Most importantly - their very mnogo.Vypuskayut even special dictionaries Kigo. On the resource kigosay where I draw my wisdom, there are more than 5000. Remember all, of course, no one can, but there are general principles that can guide - for example, the names of insects in 99 cases out of 100 - "summer" word.
What else is important to remember - in the old days (before the Meiji Restoration) Japanese lived on the lunar calendar, in which the seasons do not coincide with ours. This year started somewhere in the beginning of February and at the same time begins in the spring. Japan warmer climate than ours, and spring months were: February, March, April, which in Japanese, respectively, were called mutsuki (monthly meetings - because they all go to visit during the Christmas holidays), Kisaragi (month changes dresses - from winter to summer) and Yayoi (month kidneys). Then it was summer: May, June, July - udzuki (month of flowering), Satsuki (rice planting month) and minadzuki (month without rain). Fall - August, September, October or fumidzuki (month written, and then tell you why), Hazuki (month leaves) and nagatsuki (long moon, because the nights lengthen considerably). And finally, winter: Kannazuki (godless month, also explain later), simotsuki (month frost) and Sivas (last) - our money in November, December and January. But all these months again not strictly coincide with ours, mutsuki not started on February 1st, and will be updated as the moon, and if the lunar year too deserted with sun, then injected an additional month and then it was assumed that, for example, was two udzuki times. Why am I telling you this - that when I move on to describe Kigo, you should know that the expense of months in poetry is still being carried on staroyaponski, and if I say that "sigure" - winter word means, so it is, although it is often translated as "autumn rain."
Most of the most famous Kigo have been used for over a thousand years, an overgrown tail literary associations, and all this considerable cultural baggage to our readers is not obvious. In such cases, I dare to take on the role of "porter" and deliver to your home if not the entire heap associations, or at least the most key.
Kigo are some names of Japanese holidays or customs associated with these holidays. I dedicate this Kigo separate article.
So, in our yard harsh February - but we already know that the old Japanese calendar this spring, starting with the spring kigo.
Buds on the trees;
Light snow (avayuki - "snow like foam");
Morning Mist (Kasumi);
Shining Wind (kadzehikaru) - a complex phenomenon: when the spring breeze blowing, chasing clouds across the sky, the whole of nature as it flashes colors in the moments when the sun peeps in the clearance between the clouds;
Fog bell (kanegasumu) - another complex phenomenon: the sound of the bell, muted spring mist.
Nightingale (actually - warbler, nightingale, she became the translation: it is in our cultural code role songbird who listens spring nights and keep the house in a cage for the sake of singing, playing exactly the nightingale);
Jack (any bird);
Hundreds of thousands of birds (momotidori, all the birds together);
Hamaguri (clam shells which played in the old days);
Blooming plum tree - Chinese red plum blossoms in February, when in some places is still snow in some places, so it flowers except the onset of spring, symbolize more and durability, tenacity, courage.