From Japan to You: Haiku from Around the World
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Where escapes kiredzi?
"I have not found kiredzi", "kiredzi not here" - 40% of the project can not be found in haiku "cutting word." Could it be that it did not exist?
In Russian or English translation of it, most likely, will not. Kiredzi - Supporting Japanese words that have no exact lexical, grammatical and sometimes equivalent in our languages.
Most rasprstranennoe kiredzi - や, read as "I". Take for example the most widely known Basho haiku:
Furu ike I Kawazu tobiko mizu but mapping
In the most popular translation Vera Markova:
Jumped into the water frog
Splash in silence
Let us examine it poznakovo:
古 - wagon (s) - new
池 - ike - pond
や - cutting word, which is read as "I"
蛙 - Kawazu
飛び - Toby - flies (in the sense of jumping)
込む - who - included (in the sense in water)
水 - mizu - water
の - but - an indicator of the genitive case (who? What? - Water)
音 - mapping - sound
As you can see, that in itself is the "I" does not mean anything, and indicates only one thing: the end of the first rhythmic string consisting of five syllables: Fu-ru-and-ke-I. Because it "kiredzi" - it cuts like a verse in two parts, front and back.
If we talk about the meaning of the verse, the first line represents the exposure (old pond), the second - the actual action (frog jumped), the third - his short story of our isolation, its result (sound of water). Cutting the word in this case plays the role of a point signifies completeness exposure: things go action.
Some argue that the "I" here just for good measure syllables. But it is not. Take another Basho haiku:
富士 の 風 や 扇 に のせ て 江戸 土産
Fuji but I oogi Kaze no nosete Edo miyage
I brought a fan -
Gift from Edo
As we see, in the first row - six instead of five syllables:
Grammatical rules do not require an indispensable "I" at the end of this line could be for an accurate count syllables and sacrifice of case indicator - but Basho willing to knowingly sin against the strict rhythm 5-7-5 to insert kiredzi. It was important to emphasize the end of exposure.
So kiredzi is always something like a punctuation mark? Not quite. Some kiredzi really on grammatical function close to punctuation marks - for example, "ka" at the end of the proposal means question. Kiredzi "Nari", "Carey" or "narikeri" indicate also to act: an old grammatical past tense. "Rama" or "healing" refers to the subjunctive and is often translated as "may", "if" and so on. "C" is added to an adjective, as if emphasizing their. "Cana" is always at the end and indicates a surprise or admiration lyrical:
ひやひや と 壁 を ふま へ て 昼寝 哉
Hiya Hiya that Cabet about fumaete hirune channel
To cool wall
Feet pressed, dozed
In the afternoon - as well!
In translating search "cutting word" meaningless - and in Japanese haiku is not always meet the "I", "B" or "channels." That famous haiku Kobayashi Issa:
かたつ ぶり そろそろ 登れ 富士 の 山
Soro Soro katatsuburi nobore but fuji yama
However, their function in this case perform other words. In this poem, the "cut" goes for the word "Fuji": that it zadaetrezkuyu change perspectives from a small, insignificant (snail) to a large, majestic (Fuji).
In haiku necessarily have this sudden change perspectives, even if there is no "cutting words" that emphasizes it. Unfortunately, in Russian translation is often lost. For example, here is the most famous translation of haiku snail Vera Markova:
Crawl, the snail, the slope of Mount Fuji
Up, up to the heights
As we can see here a sharp transition from insignificant to the great lost, erased. Moreover, the third line all invented translator does not dictated in the original. It's like to relate an anecdote, but in the end also add "explanation of meaning", and wrong.
That is where the escape kiredzi in Russian and English translations. Yes, the literal translation is impossible - but a good translator will certainly find a way to somehow emphasize that the original was emphasized using kiredzi. Arrangement of words, punctuation, imagery - always something there, you just need to look.
Hoku, in which "no kiredzi" - probably just translated badly.