Ocean of tales
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We all know that one and the same tale can have several versions, some variants of beginning and end! Interesting to compare these options! Young and promising researcher scholar Sergey Shilin in his student work did so on the example of two versions of the fairy tale "Nikita the Tanner" and kindly offered to publish your article on our blog page! That's it!
Compare versions of fairy tales
"Nikita the Tanner"
The first version
Nikita the Tanner
A. Afanasyev "Russian Fairy Tales"
Around Kiev emerged snakes, took it with a lot of people exactions: from each household on the red wench; take the girl, and eat it.
Turn came to go to the snake king's daughter. Grabbed the snake princess and dragged her to his lair, and it did not have: a beauty she was, for the wife took myself.
Flight of the snakes on their crafts and princess fill up the logs, so as not to leave. There was a princess of the dog, to reconcile with her out of the house. Write, happened, princess little note to my father with my mother, to impose dog's neck; and she will run, where necessary, and the answer is still will.
Here again the king and queen and write to the princess: Learn who is stronger than a snake?
Princess became affable to his snake, he began to try to find who it stronger. He did not speak for a long time, but time and blabbed that lives in the city of Kiev Kozhumyaka - and that it is stronger.
Hearing about what the princess wrote to my father: syschite in Kiev Nikita the Tanner Fuck me from the bondage of his bail.
The king, having received such a message, find Nikita the Tanner yes he went to ask him to free his land from the fierce snake and rescued the princess.
At that time, Nikita skin crushed, kept it in the hands of twelve skins; as he saw that he was visited by the king himself, trembling with fear, his hands began to shake - and he ripped those twelve skins ;. Yes, no matter how much begged the king and queen Kozhemyako, he did not go suprotiv snake.
That came up to collect five thousand children are minors, and forced them to ask Kozhemyako; maybe their tears szhalobitsya!
Nikita came to juvenile began tearfully asks that he walked suprotiv snake. Tears himself Nikita the Tanner, looking at their tears. Took three hundred poods of hemp, nasmolil pitches and all the same winding, that snakes do not eat, and went at it.
Suitable Nikita to a den of snake and snake locked up and not go to him.
- Come out better in the open field, and then marked up and den! 'Said Kozhumyaka and was already breaking the door.
Snakes, seeing trouble neminuchuyu, came to him in the open field.
Long or short it was struggling with the serpent Nikita the Tanner, only threw the snake. Here serpents begged Nikita:
- Do not beat me to death, Nikita the Tanner! Stronger than we are with you in the light not; divide the whole earth, all light equally, you will live in one half and I the other.
- Well, - said Kozhumyaka - should pave Mezhuyev.
Nikita did plow a hundred poods, harnessed to her snake, and was from Kiev Mezhuyev plow; Nikita had a furrow from Kiev to sea Kavstriyskogo.
- Well, - said the snakes - now we have divided the whole earth!
- The land is divided, -progovoril Nikita - let's divide the sea, and then you say that your water take.
Vzehal snakes into the middle of the sea. Nikita the Tanner killed and drowned him in the sea. This furrow and is now visible; whose height is the furrow of two fathoms. Around her plow and furrow not touch; And who does not know from what this furrow -nazyvaet its shaft.
Nikita the Tanner, made holy cause, did not take anything for a job, he went again to knead the skin.
The second version
Nikita the Tanner
M.Bulatova "Russian fairy tales"
In the old days there was not far from Kiev scary snakes. Many people from Kiev shabby in his den, shabby and ate. Snakes and dragged the princess, but do not eat it, and tightly locked in his den.
Link the princess of the house for a little dog. How to fly kite on the fishery, the princess will write a note to his father, his mother, tie a note on the little dog's neck and send her home. Feist will carry a note and response
Here again the king and queen princess wrote: Read from de serpent, who is stronger than him. Became a princess from a dragon and pry dopytalas.
- Yes, - said the snakes - in Kiev Nikita the Tanner - the me stronger.
Like snakes gone to fish, and the princess wrote to his father, his mother a note: there is a de Kiev Nikita the Tanner, he is stronger than one snake. Send Nikita me from bondage to help out.
Nikita and find the king himself with his queen went to ask for help from their daughter heavy bondage. At that time, crushed Kozhumyaka time twelve cowhides. As the king saw Nikita - frightened hands Nikita trembled and broke it once every twelve leathers. Nikita angry here that it scared him and loss have done, and no amount of begging the king and his princess to rescue the princess, not gone.
That came up with the king and queen to collect five thousand young orphans - orphaned their fierce snakes - and sent them to request the release Kozhemyako entire Russian land from the great disaster. Took pity on Kozhumyaka orphan tears, tears himself. He took three hundred pounds of hemp, nasmolil her gums, whole hemp is wrapped and went.
Suitable for Nikita snake den, and shut himself up snakes, logs fell and it has not come out.
- Come out better in the open field, and not what I marked up all your lair! - Said Kozhumyaka and was already handed throw logs.
Sees snakes neminuchuyu trouble, nowhere to hide him from Nikita came out into the open field.
Long or short they bilisya only Nikita threw the snake on the ground and wanted to strangle him. Then became serpents pray Nikita:
- Do not hit me, Nikitushka to death! Stronger than you and I do not have anyone in the world. Divide all light equally, and thou shalt possess in one half, and I - in the other.
- Well, - said Nikita. - It is necessary to lay before Mezhuyev to dispute Intermedia then we did not have.
Nikita did plow three hundred pounds, harnessed to it, and the snake was from Kiev Mezhuyev run, furrow plow. Deep furrow that in two fathoms and a quarter. Nikita spent a furrow from Kiev to the Black Sea and the snake says:
- Earth we shared - now let's divide the sea to us about water Intermedia dispute failed. Steel water divide - Nikita drove the snake into the Black Sea, but there it and drowned.
Make holy thing, Nikita returned to Kiev again began to knead the skin, do not take nothing for his labor! Princess is the gate to the father, the mother. Furrow Nikitin, speak, and now somewhere in the steppe is visible, it is worth the shaft into two fathoms circuit height peasants plow and plow furrows not: leave it to the memory of Nikita Kozhemyako.
Fairy tale "Nikita the Tanner" refers to the Kiev cycle magical Russian folk tales.
Apparently, this is not the most common tale An integral Russian folklore, so I was able to find only two options.
So, I found this piece in the book Afanas'eva "Russian Fairy Tales" and in the collection M.Bulatova "Russian fairy tales."
Let's start with the end
"Nikita the Tanner" undoubtedly a fairy tale. The text submitted for consideration, describes the events and on the content and style (in both versions) immediately give understand it all - a fiction of the Russian people, striving, as always, to make the reader "on a mustache wind" yes "to teach a lesson of good fellows ".
But this is the problem his report. In the embodiment Bulatov last lines indicate directly that the tale was invented as a lesson to people "... And fold people about Nikita this tale - all good people to think." In contrast, the Athanasian version of the collection is much more sparing in excess. It ends with a simple "... did not take anything for a job, he went again to knead the skin."
I think this difference indicates that the two versions of fairy tales are designed for different age composition of the audience. Most likely, the version in the book is designed for more Afanasyev adult formation, even children. He is basically the more sparing in excess, conveys to us the most that neither is important (more on this later). Option same Bulatov much broader. It looks like a fairy tale unfolded works rather where it recorded than exclusively transmitted by word of mouth ...
Time and place of the recording to me, unfortunately, to find it was not possible, but I think it's somewhere in the 20s.
The amount of text in two different kinds of tales on me already specified reasons - schematic Athanasian options and spreads Bulatovskogo.
The very essence of a fairy tale - not the serpent, red girl and Hercules. The basic idea - to make a selfless and good work. Nikita did not know that the serpent is afraid of him, and the entreaties of "authorities" did not yield. But his heart that hour to melt when he realized that he needed his people close to him (less close) people. It's so townspeople asked him to come to their aid. Kozhumyaka come and take it for a penny!
By the way
By the way, when I read a story, thought that Nikita and daughter of the king as well as in other similar works in the finals and will be married to "live chew", and the author will be at the wedding of their "honey beer to drink ..." Not a bit of it! Kozhumyaka done deal and just went back to their duties. ... Here and I got the idea. And what if the fairy tale kind of a double bottom? What if the author has not only laid the sense of disinterested kindness, but also conveyed to the people of a certain discrepancy with fabulous stand? If she is the daughter of the King, then at the end certainly Protagonist gets her as his wife! So simple and it would not look at him, but to do something, she becomes his wife! And is not this is, let indirect, but the fee for his heroism?
That comes to mind a bit to comprehend why it ended that way, without a feast at the end?
This is it, this is the double bottom. On the one hand - the solid durability of their beliefs. (Kozhumyaka went to the snake is not for money and not even for the sake of the Red Maid, and even the king's daughters, and just for the sake of his people!) On the other hand - the very negation of fabulous canons. And it's not even the fact that the gift Princess commoner is not needed, and that this princess, maybe it does not need a simple Kozhemyako! Here it is no longer just a political ("not for the king, for the people"), but also a moral subtext.
Let us return to the analysis
Contents of options is fundamentally at odds. The serpent eats girls Kiev-town once a month. To feed everyone, all comes to the king's daughter. Snakes do not eat it, considering a written beauty, and simply refers to his cave .... And so on up to the punishment of the Brave Snake done!
If there are differences, they are very small. Besides the two. In the embodiment Afanasyev Princess helped pass notes dog, and it was Bulatovskom darling.
Frankly, doggy cause mild surprise! I think it's more like members of some western fairy tales than the original Russian folk. Dove in this regard as it ... more to the point, whether that ...
Another discrepancy is the episode with the burning of the Snake. In an embodiment of the Athanasian collection is missing. After Snake drowned in the sea, caught his Kozhumyaka with the words - "I do not want that water would clear defile your body ..." And burnt the snake, the world differently from the ashes of his body, and so the memory of it left!
At first glance, the characters are quite linear and similar to other similar within the meaning of fairy tales. Angry fire-breathing creature, serpent, beautiful damsel red, her father, the king, and all-powerful, broad-Hero ...
But, on the other hand, the hero is not aware of its power, does not know that he was afraid of his serpent, fair maiden is not as naive and unimportant, as it happens, and the king of all, it turns out, can the good people and the clever little idea issue (which stands the idea of collections of little girls to the court Kozhumyaki) ...
All this time and again points to the rejection of the canons of the fairy tale!
Snakes on Russian soil for a long time - the personification of evil and sorrow. Three heads, fire, kidnapping girls ... fantastic motives are not distinguished by originality and any logical actions of the main evil exists ...
And yet in the book version of Bulatov's much better. He is, as they say, has soul. Not just there, "came ... stole ... called ... won," as Afanasiev. There is also a description of the snake, people, customs, hanging out ...
Tale of interesting (and twice as interested in the interpretation of the collection Bulatov) ... and heroism in it, and the meaning and implication ... that is written and recorded by the Russian people!
Used materials: Site http://narodnye-russkie-skazki.gatchina3000.ru for option Afanasyev ( http://narodnye-russkie-skazki.gatchina3000.ru/skazka_66.htm )
And the book "Russian fairy tales." Gos. Izdat. Baby. Of literature Dept. of Education of the RSFSR Leningrad in 1958. Collection of M. Bulatov. P. 14-19